– Major sound-changes (OE Umlaut & Palatalization, ME Open Syllable Lengthening, EMoE Great Vowel Shift).
- Changes in the shape of the grammar: from synthesis to analysis, the decline of inflexion, the emergence of fixed word order. The development of verb forms.
– Vocabulary: word formation, semantic change, borrowing (from Scandinavian, Latin, French).
– The principles of etymology, comparison and reconstruction. History of Spelling.
– Dialects, accents and standards.
Set text: Pyles and Algeo, The Origins and Development of the English Language , 6th ed. 2010. Downloadable from http://www.kaa.ff.ukf.sk/attachments/article/39/The%20Origins%20and%20Development%20of%20the%20English%20Language%20(Textbook).pdf (The 4th ed., 1993, may also be safely used – there is no essential difference.)
Prelims: there will be 3 non-obligatory Preliminary in-class tests during term, whose points count towards the end-term exam.
Endterm exam (written): takes place during the exam period (May-June). This exam will take 2 1/2 hours, and will cover the whole of the prescribed textbook.